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At some time or another, you may run out of pins on your UNO board and need to extend it with shift registers. This example is based on the 74HC595. The datasheet refers to the 74HC595 as an "8-bit serial-in, a serial or parallel-out shift register with output latches; 3-state." In other words, you can use it to control 8 outputs at a time while only taking up a few pins on your microcontroller. You can link multiple registers together to extend your output even more.
The 4N35 is an optocoupler for general purpose applications. It consists of gallium arsenide infrared LED and a silicon NPN phototransistor. When the input signal is applied to the LED in the input terminal, the LED lights up. After receiving the light signal, the light receiver then converts it into an electrical signal and outputs the signal directly or after amplifying it into a standard digital level. Thus, the transition and transmission of electricity-light-electricity is completed. Since light is the media of the transmission, meaning the input terminal and the output one are isolated electrically, this process is also be known as electrical isolation.
PN2222 NPN Transistor
The small DC motor is likely to use more power than a UNO digital output can handle directly. If we tried to connect the motor straight to a UNO pin, there is a good chance that it could damage the UNO. A small transistor like the PN2222 can be used as a switch that uses just a little current from the UNO digital output to control the much bigger current of the motor. The transistor has three leads. Most of the electricity flows from the Collector to the Emitter, but this will only happen if a small amount is flowing into the Base connection. This small current is supplied by the UNO digital output.
An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor that uses an electrolyte to achieve a larger capacitance than other capacitor types. An electrolyte is a liquid or gel containing a high concentration of ions. Almost all electrolytic capacitors are polarized, which means that the voltage on the positive terminal must always be greater than the voltage on the negative terminal. The benefit of large capacitance in electrolytic capacitors comes with several drawbacks as well. Among these drawbacks are large leakage currents, value tolerances, equivalent series resistance, and a limited lifetime.
A ceramic capacitor uses a ceramic material as the dielectric. Ceramics were one of the first materials to be used in the production of capacitors, as it was a known insulator. Ceramic capacitors are usually made with very small capacitance values. Ceramic capacitors are also very small in size and have a low maximum rated voltage. They are not polarized, which means that they may be safely connected to an AC source. Ceramic capacitors have a great frequency response due to low parasitic effects such as resistance or inductance.
A diode is a device that allows current flow through only one direction. That is the current should always flow from the Anode to the cathode. The cathode terminal can be identified by using a grey bar as shown in the picture above. For 1N4007 Diode, the maximum current carrying capacity is 1A it withstands peaks up to 30A. Hence we can use this in circuits that are designed for less than 1A. The reverse current is 5uA which is negligible. The power dissipation of this diode is 3W. Applications of Diode: ● Can be used to prevent reverse polarity problem ● Half Wave and Full Wave rectifiers ● Used as a protection device ● Current flow regulators
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